Manual Sustainability of Biofuel Production from Oil Palm Biomass (Green Energy and Technology)

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Renewable energies: the return of biomass

Planting fast-growing trees for fuel and using fuel-efficient cooking stoves can help slow deforestation and improve the environment. Switchgrass growing on a test plot for biomass production.

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Source: Wikimedia Commons public domain. Burning municipal solid waste MSW, or garbage in waste-to-energy plants could result in less waste buried in landfills. On the other hand, burning garbage produces air pollution and releases the chemicals and substances in the waste into the air. Some of these chemicals can be hazardous to people and the environment if they are not properly controlled. The U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA applies strict environmental rules to waste-to-energy plants , which require waste-to-energy plants to use air pollution control devices such as scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators to capture air pollutants.

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Scrubbers clean emissions from waste-to-energy facilities by spraying a liquid into the combustion gases to neutralize the acids present in the stream of emissions. Fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators also remove particles from the combustion gases. The particles—called fly ash—are then mixed with the ash that is removed from the bottom of the waste-to-energy furnace. Ash from waste-to-energy plants can contain high concentrations of various metals that were present in the original waste. Textile dyes, printing inks, and ceramics, for example, may contain lead and cadmium.

Separating waste before burning can solve part of the problem. Because batteries are the largest source of lead and cadmium in municipal waste, they should not be included in regular trash. Florescent light bulbs should also not be put in regular trash because they contain small amounts of mercury. The EPA tests ash from waste-to-energy plants to make sure that it is not hazardous.

Waste to bioenergy: a review on the recent conversion technologies

The test looks for chemicals and metals that could contaminate ground water. Some MSW landfills use ash that is considered safe as a cover layer for their landfills, and some MSW ash is used to make concrete blocks and bricks. Biogas forms as a result of biological processes in sewage treatment plants, waste landfills, and livestock manure management systems. Biogas is composed mainly of methane a greenhouse gas and CO2. Many facilities that produce biogas capture it and burn the methane for heat or to generate electricity. This electricity is considered renewable and, in many states, contributes to meeting state renewable portfolio standards RPS.

This electricity may replace electricity generation from fossil fuels and can result in a net reduction in CO2 emissions. Burning methane produces CO2, but because methane is a stronger greenhouse gas than CO2, the overall greenhouse effect is lower. Biofuels are transportation fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel.

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The federal government promotes biofuels as transportation fuels to help reduce oil imports and CO2 emissions. In , the U.

The award has enabled us to develop an operational prototype, engage the wider scientific community, and foster new partnerships and industry connections. Developing sustainable technology for biofuel production is an essential strategy for developing economies like Malaysia.

Biophotovoltaics represent one way of doing this. In photosynthesis, only a small amount of solar energy absorbed is transformed into chemical energy, while the rest is wasted. This waste energy can be harvested using biophotovoltaic technology to generate electricity. Algae, amongst the most efficient photosynthetic organisms and able to grow on a wide range of substrates, are ideal for this process. Building on a prototype algal fuel cell developed at Cambridge University, we developed an integrated microbial fuel cell which uses sunlight and palm oil mill effluent POME to produce algae.

The harvested algal biomass is then used to produce biodiesel, proteins and other valuable biochemicals. She has almost seven years of working experience both in the industries and academic institutions. She has attended many International conferences, published a number of articles and completed numerous research projects related to renewable energy and waste management.

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Implementing a palm oil‐based biodiesel policy: The case of Thailand

Appendix B. Appendix C.

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Appendix D. Appendix E.

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